And so, we come to the last part:
Enjoyable vs Unpleasant
Students deserve transparency in the way they are to be assessed. In fact, there are two key questions to which every student should be able to expect an answer when asked to perform some learning activity:
1) “Why am I doing this?”, and
2) “What is this good for?”
That is not to say that each requirement must be immediately applicable in a practical sense, but it does mean that instructors should be able to help students “connect the dots” from what they are learning now to something that will be of practical use eventually.
If we put all of these ideas together, we end up with a model that is very like the way many games are set up, and, just like a game, this requires that the bulk of the course be designed before the course begins.
Just to keep things organized: these are Reigeluth’s 8 core ideas for a new post-industrial paradigm of instruction:
- Learning-focused vs. sorting focused.
- Learner-centered vs. teacher-centered instruction.
- Learning by doing vs. teacher presenting.
- Attainment-based vs. time-based progress.
- Customized vs. standardized instruction.
- Criterion-referenced vs. norm-referenced testing.
- Collaborative vs. individual.
- Enjoyable vs. unpleasant. 
- C. M. Reigeluth, “Instructional Theory and Technology for the New Paradigm of Education,” Revista de Educación a Distancia, vol. 11, Sept. 30 2012 2012.