Sources & Resources

This page contains links to additional sources of information on the subject matter (Mendelian genetics and rabbit coat colors), and on games and game design. All references cited elsewhere in this site can be found here too.


Subject Matter

On the Web:


  • Judith Graf (1991) Color Basics (self-published booklet)
  • Glenna M.Huffmon (1995), Rabbit Coat Color Genetics, 3rd Ed. (self-published booklet)
  • Bobby Schott, (1989) Color Genetics of the Netherland Dwarf Rabbit, Xavier Publications, Douglasville, Georgia


  • Lewis, J., & Kattmann, U. (2004). Traits, genes, particles and information: re‐visiting students’ understandings of genetics. International Journal of Science Education, 26(2), 195-206. doi: 10.1080/0950069032000072782.
  • Manokore, V., Montgomery, B. L., & Williams, M. (2012). From phenotype to genotype: exploring middle school students’ understanding of genetic inheritance in a web-based environment. [Article]. The American Biology Teacher, 74(1), 35+
  • Richards, M. (1996). Lay and professional knowledge of genetics and inheritance. Public Understanding of Science, 5(3), 217-230. doi: 10.1088/0963-6625/5/3/003.
  • Santos, S. (2006). The diversity of everyday ideas about inherited disorders. Public Understanding of Science, 15(3), 259-275. doi: 10.1177/0963662506059258.

Examples Using Rabbits

    • Genetic Crosses that Involve 2 Traits — Biology 2AIn rabbits, grey hair is dominant to white hair.
      Also in rabbits, black eyes are dominant to red eyes.
    • Note: We’re not sure what is meant by “gray” in this instance as there is no recognized color “gray” in rabbits. If they mean the wild colour, then that is black agouti; if they mean the dilute of a self black, then it is called blue, and if they mean chinchilla, well, then it’s called chinchilla. Anyhow, while it is true that “white” (meaning albino) is indeed recessive to full color (whether it be full color, chinchilla, shaded, or Himalayan), the recessive ‘c’ actually PREVENTS colour from happening, so in that sense it is NOT a color. Also, red eyes are a result of this lack of color – the ‘c’ gene does not cause the eyes to be red. The LACK of color results in the blood making the eyes look pink.
  • (INCORRECT) “Coat color in rabbits is determined by four alleles.”
    • Note: Coat color in rabbits is determined by approximately ten genes (not counting modifiers).
    1. B is a dominant allele coding for black fur on rabbits and b is a recessive allele coding for white fur on rabbits. Fill in the following blanks with the correct cross of the following: (1) BB x bb, (2) Bb x Bb, (3) bb x bb, (4) Bb x bb (adapted from G.T. Licata & W.H. Garnsey (1986). A General Review of Biology 2nd Edition. N & N Publishing, Middletown, NY, p. 120 [PEEK]
        1. All (100%) of the offspring are white: __________
        2. One quarter (25%) of the offspring are white: __________
        3. All (100%) of the offspring are black: ___________
        4. Three-quarters (75%) of the offspring are black: __________
        5. One-half (50%) of the offspring are white: __________

      Note: The recessive allele (‘b’) on the B-locus codes for CHOCOLATE, not white. To see how we get white in rabbits* see above).

  • (CORRECT) Genetics Lab for 1st Year Biology class at University of New Mexico

* There are in fact other ways for rabbits to appear to be white: one is to have a “broken pattern” (meaning colored spots or patches broken up by areas of white) that covers most or all of the body. Hotots are good examples of this. There is also a specific Blue-Eyed White gene (labelled the Vienna gene) that most breeds do not carry. It IS a color, and rabbits carrying this recessive gene have blue eyes.


Games & Design

On the Web:


  • Fullerton, T., Swain, C., & Hoffman, S. (2008). Game design workshop : a playcentric approach to creating innovative games (2nd ed.). Boston: Elsevier Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Koster, R. (2004). Theory of Fun for Game Design. Scottsdale, AZ: Paraglyph Press. (also: