So many people are confused about the differences between these terms. Unfortunately, this article just muddies the waters further.
It’s a great effort, but I’m afraid none of these are quite right. You may want to check out some of the resources on my site (or read my upcoming book)
Here are some definitions that come closer (check this post for my version):
What you are describing under “game” is in fact only entertainment games. There are many other kinds of games, and rewards are not always secondary, nor are they necessarily hard or expensive to build (that would describe AAA games), NOR are story and scenes part of the game (that excludes most puzzle games). When it comes to winning or losing: there are plenty of entertainment games where winning and losing is not possible.
GBL does not require a game specifically designed for educational purposes – it is the use of games in a learning context. Sometimes just playing the game is intrinsically rewarding is true of any GOOD game. Educational and other serious games rarely have the kinds of budgets that AAA games do, so they are not necessarily expensive. Good design is always hard and that applies to learning as well as all kinds of learning that involve games or game elements. Creating good learning is hard. Adding a game or game elements makes it harder still.
I would say that having optional intrinsic rewards describes BAD gamification. Good gamification is hard to do (as is good design of ANY kind). I would agree that gamification is often added like a skin on top of the content, which is why so much of it is poorly done, and largely ineffective. You may want to check out my gamification resources.
Here are a couple of definitions from my upcoming book that may help to clear things up a bit:
Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL)
Learning of some knowledge, skills, attitudes that happens with the deliberate use of digital games. This could involve learning by playing games, but it can also involve learning through building games. DGBL is about learning with games.
Specifically, DGBL is the theory of how learning happens with the use of (primarily digital) games. Game based learning draws on a variety of other learning theories to explain how people learn with games.
Digital Game Pedagogy (DGP)
As pedagogy is about the study, and theory of teaching, digital game pedagogy is about the study and theory of teaching with games. It is a term not commonly used, but it is meant to highlight the distinction between learning from games and teaching with games. The two terms are closely related but are effectively opposite sides of the same coin – one from the perspective of the learner and the other from the perspective of the teacher.
- Is interactive
- Has rules
- Has one or more goals
- Has a quantifiable measure of progress(or success)
- Has a recognizable ending
Gamification is the use of game design elements in non-game contexts. It is not necessarily about learning and can be used in any context. Examples include companies that offer points, reward systems, badges, and other incentive-based techniques, usually with the intent of increasing brand association and loyalty.
A game that has been designed to have a purpose other than or in addition to entertainment. While some entertainment games are often used as educational games, such as Sid Meyer’s Civilization, it is the designed intent that classifies a game as serious. Games like Civilization is a game used for serious purposes.